According to Article 25 of Law 4001/2011 (Gazette Α΄ 179), the relevant responsibilities of RAE consist of the following:
1. RAE may cooperate in any manner with bodies operating within the framework of the European Union, the Energy Community, international organisations or other bodies provided for under international agreements and conventions, with a view to developing a harmonised regulatory framework, strengthening security of supply, protecting customers, protecting the environment and strengthening competitiveness and thus helping to develop the internal energy market. In order to perform the above duties, the RAE shall participate in committees and working parties, attend conferences and summits of consultants and bodies and pay any manner of expenditure incurred in the performance of such duties.
2. RAE shall contribute in all possible ways to the development of the internal energy market and of healthy competition in it, by cooperating with the regulatory authorities in the Member States of the European Union and other regulatory authorities, especially within the area of the Energy Community, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, the European Commission, the bodies of the Energy Community and international organisations. In particular, it shall:
(a) notify the energy regulatory authorities in other Member States of the European Union and the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators of any information needed in order for them to perform their duties;
(b) monitor technical cooperation between the European transmission system operators and their counterparts in third countries, especially in countries in the Energy Community and in countries whose systems are interconnected with Greece’s transmission systems;
(c) contribute to data exchange procedures for the most important market procedures at regional level.
3. RAE may request the opinion of the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators and advise the European Commission of cross-border issues, especially in relation to decisions by the regulatory authorities in other Member States that may conflict with guidelines which refer to the relevant European legislation, within two (2) months of publication of such decisions.
4. RAE shall apply the legally binding decisions by the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators and the European Commission and by the bodies of the Energy Community.
5. The RAE shall consult and cooperate on cross-border issues with the energy regulatory authorities of the Member States of the European Union and the Energy Community and of third countries whose systems are interconnected with Greece’s transmission systems, with the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators and with the European Commission, especially for the purpose of:
(a) promoting operational arrangements that allow for optimum management of the system, the development of common electricity and natural gas exchanges and cross-border capacity allocation and for an adequate level of interconnection potential, including via new interconnections at regional level and between regions, thereby making it feasible to develop healthy competition and improve the security of supply, without discriminating between suppliers in various Member States;
(b) develop common rules on capacity allocation and congestion management at interconnections.
(c) Ensuring the consistent implementation of Directive 2009/73/EC in the territory of the Member States, concerning gas infrastructures to and from a third country, the first EU connection point of which is located in Greece.
(d) Ensuring the consistent implementation of Directive 2009/73/EC in the territory and territorial waters of Greece, concerning the exploitation of natural gas infrastructure to and from third countries.
Organization for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER)
ACER’s main mission, as defined by the new European Regulation 2019/942 (5 June 2019), is to assist national Energy Authorities in exercising their regulatory powers and regulatory tasks at European level, while helping to resolve disputes between Member States, and whenever necessary to coordinate the actions of National Regulatory Authorities on cross-border issues. In this way, ACER contributes to the coherent and effective implementation of European Union law to achieve its climate and energy goals.
In addition, ACER helps to ensure the proper functioning of the European single gas and electricity market, while assisting National Regulators in their regulatory policy at European level and, where necessary, coordinates their work.
More specifically, ACER:
- complements and coordinates the work of national regulatory authorities,
- assists in shaping the operation rules of European network infrastructure,
- where necessary, makes binding individual decisions on access and operational security terms and conditions for cross-border infrastructure;
- advises the European institutions on electricity and gas issues,
- monitors the internal electricity and gas markets and reports its findings; and
- monitors wholesale energy markets to detect and prevent abuses, in close cooperation with national regulators (a responsibility taken in 2012 under EU Regulation 1227/2011 concerning the integrity and transparency of the wholesale energy market).
Pursuant to the new Regulation 2019/942, the Agency’s responsibilities were further strengthened to control and monitor the operation of the European electricity and gas transmission system operators (ENTSOs) and of the European national electricity and gas distribution network operators (ENDSOs) to be set up, as well as the control and monitoring of the new bodies for the operation of the energy markets in the cross-border interconnections (Network Electricity Market Operators – NEMOs), the regional coordination centers for the operation of the national electricity transmission networks and the revision of the Regulation to ensure the electricity supply of transmission networks.
Organizational Structure of ACER
The Agency consists of: a) the Administrative Board, b) the Board of Regulators, c) the Secretariat, and d) the Board of Appeal.
The three (3) Working Groups are:
- Natural Gas Working Group
- Electricity Working Group
- REMIT Working Group (for wholesale market monitoring, integrity and transparency under REMIT 1227/2011)
Each Working Group can set up Task Forces to look at specific regulatory issues. Both the number of working groups and the number of their task forces can be changed by a decision of the Board of Regulators, aiming at responding more effectively to the priorities and the overall regulatory framework within which the Agency and the national regulatory authorities should work effectively. In particular, in 2020 there were a total of 18 task forces.
|ACER Working Groups|
|Electricity Working Group||Gas Working Group||ACER REMIT Committee|
|Infrastructure||Balancing||REMIT Policy Taskforce|
|Future Policy & Governance||Capacity Allocation Mechanism||Market Data Standing Committee|
|System Operation & Grid Connection||Capacity Allocation Mechanism – Rules for trading||Market Monitoring Standing Committee|
|Balancing||Infrastructure||REMIT Information Security Implementation Group|
|Capacity Allocation and Congestion Management||Interoperability|
|Forward Capacity Allocation||Tariffs|
|Adequacy & CRMs||Gas Target Model|
Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER)
The Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) was set up as a Belgian non-profit association in 2000, with the aim of cooperating with Europe’s independent energy regulators. It seeks to facilitate the creation of a single, competitive, efficient and sustainable internal energy market in the EU. Its work complements that of ACER.
Through CEER, the national regulators cooperate and exchange best practices. The CEER operates as a platform for cooperation, exchange of information and assistance between the national energy regulators of Europe and works as their interconnection at EU level and internationally.
The CEER seeks to share best regulatory practices worldwide through its participation in the International Confederation of Energy Regulators (ICER), which is a forum for the cooperation of regulators associations from around the world, such as NARUC (USA), ERRA (Central/Eastern Europe) and MedReg.
Participation in CEER is open to all national regulatory authorities of the European Union or the European Economic Area (EEA).
Organizational Structure of CEER
Market Integrity and Transparency
Electricity Working Group
Gas Working Group
Customer and Retail Markets Working Group
International Relations Group
Distribution System Working Group
|EPU (European Policy Unit)||WEM WS
Wholesale energy markets
Regulatory Gas Strategy
Energy quality of Supply
(Regulatory Benchmarking Work Stream)
Incentives Regulation and Efficiency Benchmarking
|Gas WS Decarbonisation Legislation||IRM WS
Innovation and Retail Markets
Work Program Drafting Committee
Liquefied Natural Gas
Monitoring Customer Empowerment
Legal Affairs Committee
|GI WS||MRM WS
Monitoring Retail Makrets
|Digitalisation Steering Group||ATS WS Access Tariffs and Settlement of Supply||RMR WS
Retail Market Roadmap Work Stream
|PEER Partnership for the enforcement of the European Rights|
Cooperation with the European Commission on regulatory issues
In 1998, the European Commission set up the Florence European Forum on Electricity (Florence Forum) and a year later the Madrid Forum on Gas (Madrid Forum), with the main aim of promoting regulatory cooperation and, consequently, integration of the internal energy market in the Community. These regulatory fora, which are convened twice per year with the participation of the Commission, the Member States, the members of the European Parliament, representatives of the energy regulators, transmission system operators, traders’ associations, consumers, transmission system users and regulated energy markets, have now become informal Community advisory bodies and areas for highlighting internal market problems as well as promoting solutions to them. These fora were the basis for the most recent establishment of the respective European Regulatory Fora in Dublin (for consumer protection) and Copenhagen (for energy infrastructure). RAE systematically monitors the European energy forums and participates in their work.
The RAE regularly participates in the works of the gas (as a competent authority) and electricity coordination groups of the European Commission for the prevention and promotion of critical issues of security of supply at regional level.
Finally, RAE participates in the works of the European Commission in the Central and South Eastern Europe energy connectivity initiative (CESEC), which aims to accelerate the integration of its gas and electricity markets in Central and Eastern Europe.
Energy Community Regulatory Board (ECRB)
The Energy Community Regulatory Board, which was established under Article 58 of the Treaty establishing the Energy Community has Athens as its permanent meeting place. ECRB is composed of one representative of the energy regulator of each Contracting Party, one representative of the European Commission, assisted by one regulator of each Participant, and one representative of the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators.
The mission of the ECRB is based on three pillars. The first pillar is the provision of coordinated regulatory proposals on energy policies, the second pillar is the harmonisation of the regulatory rules of the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community with the regulatory rules of the EU (the third energy package and the network codes) and the third pillar is the exchange of experience and regulatory practices as well as the development of common regulatory proposals.
ECRB Working Groups
- The Electricity Working Group which focuses on wholesale electricity market issues.
- The Gas Working Group focuses on wholesale gas market issues.
- The Consumer Working Group focuses on retail electricity and gas issues.
- The REMIT Working Group was established after the Energy Community Ministerial Council to implement (at first a “light” version of) the REMIT Regulation.
Athens Electricity Forum
The full harmonization of the Energy Community with the European Union’s target model, with the aim of enlarging the single European regulatory area, is also promoted through the regulatory conferences on electricity and gas, established by the Energy Community Treaty. The Athens Forum of the Energy Community for the Electricity Market in Southeastern Europe is provided for in the Treaty establishing the Energy Community and it is held in accordance with the standards of the European Electricity Regulatory Forum (Florence Forum). RAE actively participates in the preparation of these meetings, in close cooperation with the European Commission and the Secretariat of the Energy Community.
Association of Mediterranean Energy Regulators (MedReg)
The main objectives of the Union of Mediterranean Energy Regulators are to promote a clear, stable, and harmonized energy regulatory framework throughout the Mediterranean, namely:
- Promoting the harmonization of energy markets and national legislation, as well as the pursuit of a gradual integration of the energy market in the Euro-Mediterranean area.
- Promoting sustainable development in the energy sector, by improving the efficiency and integration of energy markets.
- Supporting initiatives of common interest in key areas, such as investment and development infrastructure, innovative financing solutions and research in the field of energy regulation.
- To provide training services to MedReg members.
- The strengthening of the cooperation and the exchange of information between the members, with the formation and operation of a permanent framework for discussion and cooperation.
MedReg Working Groups
- Institutional Working Group
- Electricity Working Group
- Gas Working Group
- Working Group on Environment, Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency
- Working Group on Consumer Issues
Balkan Advisory Forum
The Balkan Advisory Forum was founded as permanent advisory forum on September 29th, 2018 in Thessaloniki by the National Regulatory Authorities of Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Northern Macedonia and Montenegro: the Energy and Water Regulatory Commission of the Republic of Bulgaria (EWRC), the Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE), the Agency for Energy of the Republic of Serbia (AERS), the Energy Regulatory Commission of the Republic of North Macedonia (ERC) and the Energy Regulatory Agency of Montenegro (REGAGEN).
Bilateral and Regional Initiatives
RAE Memorandum of Understanding with the French Energy Regulatory Authority (Commission de régulation de l’énergie)
In 2018, RAE concluded a bilateral Cooperation Agreement with the French Energy Regulatory Authority (CRE) for to share best practices and promote common projects in the following areas:
Regarding bilateral cooperation:
- Best practices related to energy market regulation issues, to promote the proper functioning of the energy markets.
- Best practices for establishing a regulatory framework for development
- Promoting Renewable Energy Sources using new support mechanisms and new competitive procedures.
- Interconnection issues, including cases of non-interconnected islands.
- Smart Technologies: Regulatory framework development for the rollout of smart meters, the promotion of e-mobility, and the development of smart grids and the establishment energy communities.
Regarding European Union affairs:
- Cooperation on European issues within CEER and ACER, to promote a more integrated European energy market.
- Exchange of views on EU legislative activities (Clean Energy for All package, Gas Directive, etc.).
Regarding international affairs:
- Possible cooperation in “twinning” programs in third countries, based on the relevant past experiences of each Authority in specific regulatory issues (eg, market reforms, development of new technologies and systems, etc.)
- Cooperation and exchange of experiences over international issues, in particular regarding both the participation of RAE and CRE in international organizations such as MedReg and the OECD.
In 2018, several meetings were carried out in the framework of the above agreement between the two Authorities as well as with other Regulatory Authorities (such as Naxos in July and Vienna in December 2018) to strengthen the relations between the national energy authorities of the Member States of Southern Europe.
Memorandum of Understanding between energy regulatory authorities of Greece (RAE), Bulgaria (EWRC) and Romania (ANRE)
In 2017, the first meeting between the three Regulatory Authorities took place. During the meeting, RAE presented the current developments in Renewable Energy Sources, Electricity and Natural Gas, the Bulgarian Regulatory Authority presented the developments in the Natural Gas sector and the Romanian Regulatory Authority presented the developments in electricity.
The three Regulators emphasized the need for closer cooperation as Balkan neighbors and members of the European Union to address common challenges in implementing the 3rd Energy Package, and the Winter Package, ensuring energy security of supply and exchanging know-how and experiences from issues that each Authority has dealt with successfully in the past. The three Regulators agreed to continue working closely on issues of common interest.
Memorandum of Cooperation between the Belgian Energy Regulatory Authority (CREG) and the Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE)
In November 2014, RAE and the Belgian Electricity and Gas Regulatory Authority (CREG) and, respectively, the Belgian Gas Transmission System Operator (FLUXYS) and Hellenic Gas Transmission System Operator (DESFA), agreed to jointly promote cooperation between Greece and Belgium in the energy sector, and in particular in the gas sector. The purpose of the agreements signed between the above four bodies is the exchange of best practices, experience and know-how regarding the regulation of energy markets, including the development of gas hubs, given the experience that FLUXYS has in the industry. The agreements signed were the results of the initiative, continuous effort and coordination by the Belgian Embassy in Athens.
RAE Memorandum of Cooperation with the Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority (CERA)
On 18 May 2012, a Memorandum of Cooperation between the Energy Regulatory Authorities of Greece and Cyprus was signed in Nicosia. The Cooperation Memorandum sealed the previous, close but informal until then, cooperation between the two Authorities. It was a starting point for the realization and awareness of the serious role that these two Authorities were called to assume, both in the context of European Union where the Regulators were called to implement the EU decisions. The severe economic crisis and its effects on the energy affairs and the economies of the two countries in general, as well as the discoveries in the gas fields within the Cyprus EEZ also were drivers for the agreement.
Five (5) main axes of cooperation between the two national Energy Regulatory Authorities were identified:
- The exchange of know-how on issues such as competition in the electricity and gas markets, the design, sustainability and efficiency of these markets, as well as the related energy investments, the adequacy, quality, reliability and security of electricity and gas supply in the domestic market, third party access to networks, renewable energy sources, etc.
- Cooperation related to Community law, national / national law, regulations, codes, rules, forms, institutional frameworks, training and register maintenance.
- Cooperation in the field of electricity and gas networks, regional cooperation, international interconnections, cross-border infrastructure and trade, licensing in the field of energy, security of energy supply and pricing of electricity and gas.
- The exchange of views on issues related to the monitoring and operation of the electricity and gas markets, especially on issues related to consumers, as well as the application of new technologies, such as smart networks, electric vehicles, etc.
- Undertaking planned and coordinated actions to achieve common goals and promote common positions in organized bodies of the European Union (CEER, ACER) and the Mediterranean Basin (MEDREG), but also in other International Bodies, in which the two Authorities have institutional competence.
European Union Projects
During 2018, RAE teamed up with the energy regulators of Austria (E-Control – Coordinator), and France (CRE), in order to participate with a joint proposal in the European Commission’s call for interest in the twinning project entitled “Development of Incentive Based Regulation for Service Quality and Regulatory Strategy to Support Roll-out of Smart Metering” (GE 15 ENI EY 03 18 R).
The aim of the project is to develop the institutional framework for the implementation of the regulatory rules of the Georgian energy market, in accordance with the Acquis of the Union, and to strengthen the capacity of the Georgian National Energy and Water Regulatory Authority (GNERC) through the development of tools and mechanisms based on EU best practices in the design of incentive-based regulatory rules for service quality and the development of a regulatory strategy to support the development of smart meters.
Following the relevant tender procedure, the consortium with the participation of RAE was selected by the European Commission to implement the above project, and signed the relevant contract No. ΕΝΙ / 2018 / 403-468.
The implementation of the project is started in February 2019 and it was successfully completed in- January 2021.
Pursuant to RAE Decision 353/2013 on the “Participation of RAE in the Twinning Project with Νο EG/13/ENPEY/19 for the reorganization of the electricity market of Egypt”, the Authority participated as Coordinator in the Twinning Project, which aimed to strengthen the Electricity Utility and Consumer Protection Regulatory Agency (EgyptERA) in order to be effective in the exercise of its responsibilities in accordance with EU and international best practices. The program was implemented during the period 04/01/2016 to 26/08/2017.
The Partners participating in the program, with the exception of Egypt, were RAE, as the Leading Consortium Partner and the Italian Electricity and Gas Regulatory Authority (ARERA) as the Junior Consortium Partner.
The main objectives of the project were:
- providing support to EgyptERA for the implementation of reforms and regulatory functions,
- the development of the Egyptian energy sector through the attraction of private investment in accordance with best practices,
- improving the transparency of the Egyptian energy sector,
- contributing to the reform of institutions and the modernization of the Egyptian public sector;
- Improving the investment climate and thus reducing the potential risks for potential investors, paving the way for achieving the strategic goal of interconnecting the Egyptian Power System with neighboring countries and ultimately with the European power grid.
The RAE gained significant experience from its participation throughout 2010-2013 in two twinning programs implemented in Ukraine, in a joint nature with the Regulatory Authorities of Italy, Romania and Hungary. The purpose of these programs was to examine the Ukrainian legal framework for energy and to formulate concrete proposals for its harmonization with the relevant European law, as well as the transfer of knowledge to the Ukrainian regulatory authority NERC, inter alia for the legal and accounting unbundling of Ukraine champion companies operating in the gas market, the quality of services provided, cost-oriented pricing, protection of vulnerable consumers, etc.. In the second phase, the cooperation focused on supporting the implementation of the changes promoted during the first program.
HORIZON 2020 programs
RAE supports innovative projects in the framework of “HORIZON 2020” program. In this context, the important role of energy is emphasized as a driving force for the development of the economy but also for the better quality of life of the citizens of the Union. The abandonment of fossil fuels and the adoption of new ambitious climate and environmental goals make the shift to “green” technologies and investments in greener infrastructure a priority. For this reason, the European Union has a reserve of € 5.931 billion earmarked for the financing of these projects. In this context, RAE took part in the innovative project “STEP-IN” – Using Living Labs to roll out Sustainable Strategies for Energy Poor Individuals “.
Cooperation with other Organizations
RAE cooperates with a number of other international organizations and bodies, such as the “Union pour la Méditerranée” (eg regarding the regulatory framework for energy in Greece), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (eg regarding the regulatory framework in the products market- including energy, for data on non-nuclear states, data on competition policy in Greece, under the NER framework, etc.), the International Energy Agency (eg in the context of the mid-term review of the Greece in the field of energy as well as the progress it has made in the last period), and the Energy Charter (eg on the calculation of the risk in energy investments).
Finally, RAE is closely following the developments of the “Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum” (EMGF) consisting of Jordan, Cyprus, Greece, Egypt, Palestine, Israel and Italy.